Quantum physics explained

We use physics every day. The laws of motion and momentum govern our movements, and the law of gravity keeps us from floating away — but what about quantum physics? Quantum physics is similar to standard physics. Classic physics focuses on ordinary nature, things we can see and touch without the need for additional tools. In essence, quantum physics is the science of the smallest particles in the universe and how they interact with the things around them.

Quantum physicists study subatomic particles — photons, electrons, neutrons, quarks, etc. Quantum physics, also known as quantum mechanics, made an appearance in the scientific communities in the early s when Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity. Ina physicist named Max Planck found himself facing a dilemma. According to the laws of physics at the time, if a box was heated up in an environment where no light could escape, it would produce an infinite amount of ultraviolet radiation.

At the time, scientists assumed light was a continuous wave. He was right. Einstein later theorized that light existed as individual particles, which in were named photons. How can you study something that is too small for even the most powerful microscope to see? The technology actually dates back to the early s during the discovery and development of the periodic table.

The first subatomic particle we discovered was the electron, because of the discharge effects of electricity in some gases. Then came protons, the nucleus of the atom and neutrons. They can detect them directly or discover their presence because of the reaction of the charged particles. Of course, nothing is ever easy in quantum physics. InWerner Heisenberg of Germany theorized that it is impossible to measure both the position and the velocity of an object at the same time.

This theory later became known as the Quantum or Heisenberg Uncertainty Principleand is one of the foundations of modern quantum mechanics. You can easily tell the velocity and position of an apple falling from a tree — 5.Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level. The nature and behavior of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics.

Planck had sought to discover the reason that radiation from a glowing body changes in color from red, to orange, and, finally, to blue as its temperature rises. He found that by making the assumption that energy existed in individual units in the same way that matter does, rather than just as a constant electromagnetic wave - as had been formerly assumed - and was therefore quantifiablehe could find the answer to his question.

The existence of these units became the first assumption of quantum theory. Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure to represent these individual units of energy, which he called quanta. The equation explained the phenomenon very well; Planck found that at certain discrete temperature levels exact multiples of a basic minimum valueenergy from a glowing body will occupy different areas of the color spectrum.

Planck assumed there was a theory yet to emerge from the discovery of quanta, but, in fact, their very existence implied a completely new and fundamental understanding of the laws of nature. Planck won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory inbut developments by various scientists over a thirty-year period all contributed to the modern understanding of quantum theory. The two major interpretations of quantum theory's implications for the nature of reality are the Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds theory.

Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be for example, a wave or a particlebut that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured.

In short, Bohr was saying that objective reality does not exist. This translates to a principle called superposition that claims that while we do not know what the state of any object is, it is actually in all possible states simultaneously, as long as we don't look to check. To illustrate this theory, we can use the famous and somewhat cruel analogy of Schrodinger's Cat. First, we have a living cat and place it in a thick lead box. At this stage, there is no question that the cat is alive.

We then throw in a vial of cyanide and seal the box. We do not know if the cat is alive or if the cyanide capsule has broken and the cat has died. Since we do not know, the cat is both dead and alive, according to quantum law - in a superposition of states. It is only when we break open the box and see what condition the cat is that the superposition is lost, and the cat must be either alive or dead.

The second interpretation of quantum theory is the many-worlds or multiverse theory. It holds that as soon as a potential exists for any object to be in any state, the universe of that object transmutes into a series of parallel universes equal to the number of possible states in which that the object can exist, with each universe containing a unique single possible state of that object. Furthermore, there is a mechanism for interaction between these universes that somehow permits all states to be accessible in some way and for all possible states to be affected in some manner.

Stephen Hawking and the late Richard Feynman are among the scientists who have expressed a preference for the many-worlds theory. Although scientists throughout the past century have balked at the implications of quantum theory - Planck and Einstein among them - the theory's principles have repeatedly been supported by experimentation, even when the scientists were trying to disprove them.

Quantum theory and Einstein's theory of relativity form the basis for modern physics. The principles of quantum physics are being applied in an increasing number of areas, including quantum optics, quantum chemistry, quantum computingand quantum cryptography.

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quantum physics explained

For decades, its cause has remained unsettled. Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

A compliance framework is a structured set of guidelines that details an organization's processes for maintaining accordance with Regulatory compliance is an organization's adherence to laws, regulations, guidelines and specifications relevant to its business Remote access is the ability for an authorized person to access a computer or a network from a geographical distance through a Telemedicine is the remote delivery of healthcare services, such as health assessments or consultations, over the Project Nightingale is a controversial partnership between Google and Ascension, the second largest health system in the UnitedQuantum physics is the study of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and even smaller microscopic levels.

In the early 20th century, scientists discovered that the laws governing macroscopic objects do not function the same in such small realms. Even space and time, which appear to be extremely continuous, have the smallest possible values. As scientists gained the technology to measure with greater precision, strange phenomena was observed. The birth of quantum physics is attributed to Max Planck's paper on blackbody radiation.

Ironically, Albert Einstein had serious theoretical issues with quantum mechanics and tried for many years to disprove or modify it. In the realm of quantum physics, observing something actually influences the physical processes taking place.

Light waves act like particles and particles act like waves called wave particle duality. Matter can go from one spot to another without moving through the intervening space called quantum tunnelling. Information moves instantly across vast distances. In fact, in quantum mechanics we discover that the entire universe is actually a series of probabilities.

Fortunately, it breaks down when dealing with large objects, as demonstrated by the Schrodinger's Cat thought experiment. One of the key concepts is quantum entanglementwhich describes a situation where multiple particles are associated in such a way that measuring the quantum state of one particle also places constraints on the measurements of the other particles. This is best exemplified by the EPR Paradox.

Though originally a thought experiment, this has now been confirmed experimentally through tests of something known as Bell's Theorem. Quantum optics is a branch of quantum physics that focuses primarily on the behavior of light, or photons. At the level of quantum optics, the behavior of individual photons has a bearing on the outcoming light, as opposed to classical optics, which was developed by Sir Isaac Newton.

Lasers are one application that has come out of the study of quantum optics.

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Quantum electrodynamics QED is the study of how electrons and photons interact. The predictions of QED regarding the scattering of photons and electrons are accurate to eleven decimal places. Unified field theory is a collection of research paths that are trying to reconcile quantum physics with Einstein's theory of general relativityoften by trying to consolidate the fundamental forces of physics.

Some types of unified theories include with some overlap :. Quantum physics is sometimes called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. It also has various subfields, as discussed above, which are sometimes used interchangeably with quantum physics, though quantum physics is actually the broader term for all of these disciplines. The Compton Effect. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Share Flipboard Email. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Math and Physics Expert.The supposition is telling us that we may well be deeply incorrect in our reasoning concerning what reality truly is.

Quantum theory was first christened quantum mechanics considering that it was supposed that there must have existed some habitual laws implicated in the activity of atomic particles and quanta of energy akin to the mechanics of macroscopical subject matter the likes of the major planets. In simple terms however Quantum theory is the analysis of the leaps from one energy echelon to another as it refers to the fabric and behaviour of atoms.

He conjectured that not only the energy, but the radiation itself was quantized in the identical fashion. For that reason, in spite of his many novel approximations, Einstein at no time could let go of the purpose of pre-quantum science to be competent to forecast the cosmos like clockwork. Quantum science is not, as Einstein conceived, an unfinished science but in fact, a very progressive science inasmuch as it acknowledges that in complicated techniques science can at most provide expectations for the reaction of distinctive divisions.

Nearly all individuals conceive that quantum theory is, in essence, the theory of the imperceptible sphere, of tiny particles, and enormous accelerators. For the majority of people however, quantum theory is a slogan for enigmatic, unfathomable science. It does however have a much larger field than just the diminutive sphere and can be suited to techniques where many unique sections work with each other and effect one and another.

See author's posts. Atomic and energy particles must be specific objects. That model gives an RQ diagram which can portray a unified system of mathematical equations by combination of the quantum functions for wave frequency and wavelength with the relativistic transformation functions for time, mass, and energy.

These reactions unfold as psi pulsates within spacetime boundaries, in which space is bonded to psi by gravity. Those 26 topofuncs give energy intermedon sizes which intersect those of the fundamental physical constants: h, h-bar, delta, nuclear magneton, beta magneton. The article, unfortunately, said virtually nothing about what quantum theory is.

It just went around it with the usual hyperbole type mystification but generated no light. The comment wrapped in inscrutable jargon is precisely the reason why one wants an explanation in terms as simple as possible. My field is philosophy and I can mystify anyone easily too. That is no achievement. Communicating with general readers is. Take Bertrand Russell, who was able to communicate deepest ideas in simple language.

quantum physics explained

Well, the article along with its misleading title failed me. I will look elsewhere.Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level.

The nature and behavior of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics. Planck had sought to discover the reason that radiation from a glowing body changes in color from red, to orange, and, finally, to blue as its temperature rises.

Quantum Physics Overview

He found that by making the assumption that energy existed in individual units in the same way that matter does, rather than just as a constant electromagnetic wave - as had been formerly assumed - and was therefore quantifiablehe could find the answer to his question.

The existence of these units became the first assumption of quantum theory. Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure to represent these individual units of energy, which he called quanta.

The equation explained the phenomenon very well; Planck found that at certain discrete temperature levels exact multiples of a basic minimum valueenergy from a glowing body will occupy different areas of the color spectrum. Planck assumed there was a theory yet to emerge from the discovery of quanta, but, in fact, their very existence implied a completely new and fundamental understanding of the laws of nature.

Planck won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theory inbut developments by various scientists over a thirty-year period all contributed to the modern understanding of quantum theory. The two major interpretations of quantum theory's implications for the nature of reality are the Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds theory. Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be for example, a wave or a particlebut that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured.

In short, Bohr was saying that objective reality does not exist. This translates to a principle called superposition that claims that while we do not know what the state of any object is, it is actually in all possible states simultaneously, as long as we don't look to check. To illustrate this theory, we can use the famous and somewhat cruel analogy of Schrodinger's Cat. First, we have a living cat and place it in a thick lead box.

At this stage, there is no question that the cat is alive. We then throw in a vial of cyanide and seal the box. We do not know if the cat is alive or if the cyanide capsule has broken and the cat has died.

Since we do not know, the cat is both dead and alive, according to quantum law - in a superposition of states. It is only when we break open the box and see what condition the cat is that the superposition is lost, and the cat must be either alive or dead. The second interpretation of quantum theory is the many-worlds or multiverse theory.

It holds that as soon as a potential exists for any object to be in any state, the universe of that object transmutes into a series of parallel universes equal to the number of possible states in which that the object can exist, with each universe containing a unique single possible state of that object. Furthermore, there is a mechanism for interaction between these universes that somehow permits all states to be accessible in some way and for all possible states to be affected in some manner.

Stephen Hawking and the late Richard Feynman are among the scientists who have expressed a preference for the many-worlds theory. Although scientists throughout the past century have balked at the implications of quantum theory - Planck and Einstein among them - the theory's principles have repeatedly been supported by experimentation, even when the scientists were trying to disprove them.

Quantum theory and Einstein's theory of relativity form the basis for modern physics. The principles of quantum physics are being applied in an increasing number of areas, including quantum optics, quantum chemistry, quantum computingand quantum cryptography. Please check the box if you want to proceed. A compliance framework is a structured set of guidelines that details an organization's processes for maintaining accordance with Regulatory compliance is an organization's adherence to laws, regulations, guidelines and specifications relevant to its business Privacy compliance is a company's accordance with established personal information protection guidelines, specifications or Cybersecurity is the protection of internet-connected systems -- including hardware, software and data -- from cyberattacks.

Risk analysis is the process of identifying and analyzing potential issues that could negatively impact key business initiatives Telemedicine is the remote delivery of healthcare services, such as health assessments or consultations, over the Project Nightingale is a controversial partnership between Google and Ascension, the second largest health system in the UnitedQuantum Mechanics or QM, describes how the Universe works at the level smaller than atoms.

It is also called "quantum physics" or "quantum theory". Quantum is the Latin word for 'how much', and mechanics is the area of science concerned with motion. A quantum of energy is a specific amount of energy, and Quantum Mechanics describes how that energy moves and interacts at the sub-atomic level. Atoms used to be considered the smallest building blocks of matter but modern science has shown that there are even smaller particles, like protonsneutrons and electrons.

QM is the part of physics that describes how the particles that make up atoms work. QM also tells us how electromagnetic waves like light work. Much of modern physics and chemistry can be described and understood using the mathematical rules of Quantum mechanics.

The mathematics used to study subatomic particles and electromagnetic waves is very complex because they act in very strange ways. Photons are particles much smaller than atoms and protons and electrons; in fact, they do not have any mass at all. Photons are like "packets" or packages of energy. Light sources such as candles or lasers shoot out or "emit" light in bits called photons. The more photons a lamp shoots off, the brighter the light. Light is a form of energy that behaves like the waves in water or radio waves.

The distance between the top of one wave and the top of the next wave is called a ' wavelength. A light's color depends on its wavelength. Such light cannot be seen by the human eye. Human eyes are not sensitive to infrared light either.

quantum physics explained

Wavelengths are not always so small. Radio waves have longer wavelengths. The wavelengths for an FM radio can be several meters in length for example, stations transmitting on Each photon has a certain amount of energy related to its wavelength. The shorter the wavelength of a photon, the greater its energy.

For example, an ultraviolet photon has more energy than an infrared photon. Wavelength and frequency the number of times the wave crests per second are inversely proportional, which means a longer wavelength will have a lower frequency, and vice versa.

If the color of the light is infrared lower in frequency than red lighteach photon can heat up what it hits.It results in what may appear to be some very strange conclusions about the physical world. In classical mechanics, objects exist in a specific place at a specific time. However, in quantum mechanics, objects instead exist in a haze of probability; they have a certain chance of being at point A, another chance of being at point B and so on.

Quantum mechanics QM developed over many decades, beginning as a set of controversial mathematical explanations of experiments that the math of classical mechanics could not explain.

Unlike relativity, however, the origins of QM cannot be attributed to any one scientist. Rather, multiple scientists contributed to a foundation of three revolutionary principles that gradually gained acceptance and experimental verification between and They are:.

Quantized properties : Certain properties, such as position, speed and color, can sometimes only occur in specific, set amounts, much like a dial that "clicks" from number to number. This challenged a fundamental assumption of classical mechanics, which said that such properties should exist on a smooth, continuous spectrum.

quantum theory

To describe the idea that some properties "clicked" like a dial with specific settings, scientists coined the word "quantized. Particles of light : Light can sometimes behave as a particle. This was initially met with harsh criticism, as it ran contrary to years of experiments showing that light behaved as a wave; much like ripples on the surface of a calm lake.

Light behaves similarly in that it bounces off walls and bends around corners, and that the crests and troughs of the wave can add up or cancel out. Added wave crests result in brighter light, while waves that cancel out produce darkness. The color emitted corresponds to the distance between the crests, which is determined by the speed of the ball's rhythm. Waves of matter : Matter can also behave as a wave. This ran counter to the roughly 30 years of experiments showing that matter such as electrons exists as particles.

InGerman physicist Max Planck sought to explain the distribution of colors emitted over the spectrum in the glow of red-hot and white-hot objects, such as light-bulb filaments. Somehow, colors were quantized! This was unexpected because light was understood to act as a wave, meaning that values of color should be a continuous spectrum.

This seemed so strange that Planck regarded quantization as nothing more than a mathematical trick. According to Helge Kragh in his article in Physics World magazine, " Max Planck, the Reluctant Revolutionary ," "If a revolution occurred in physics in Decembernobody seemed to notice it.

Planck was no exception …". Planck's equation also contained a number that would later become very important to future development of QM; today, it's known as "Planck's Constant.


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